最后更新时间: 2022-03-17 20:11:08





Delivered at the Fifth Session of the 13th National People’s Congress ofthe People’s Republic of China on March 5, 2022



Li Keqiang

Premier of the State Council





Fellow Deputies,




On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work ofthe government and ask for your deliberation and approval. I also ask membersof the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political ConsultativeConference (CPPCC) for their comments.



I. A Review of Our Work in 2021




Last year was a milestone in the history of the Communist Party of China(CPC) and our country. The CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at itscore united and led the whole Party and Chinese people of all ethnic groups inaccomplishing the following endeavors: 


  • We celebrated thecentenary of the Communist Party of China; 

  • The 19th CPC CentralCommittee convened its sixth plenary session where a resolution on the Party’smajor achievements and historical experience over the past century was adopted;

  • We declared victoryin the critical battle against poverty as envisaged;

  • We achieved thefirst centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in allrespects on schedule and began a new journey toward the second centenary goalof building a modern socialist country in all respects. 


Last year, facing complicated and challenging circumstances both in andoutside of China, as well as many risks and challenges, all of us throughoutthe country worked hard as one. We responded to Covid-19 and pursued economicand social development in a well-coordinated way, accomplished the main targetsand tasks for the year, got the 14th Five-Year Plan off to a good start, andonce again secured new and major achievements in our country’s development.


– The economy continued to recover and grow. China’sgross domestic product (GDP) reached 114 trillion yuan, growing 8.1 percent.National fiscal revenue exceeded 20 trillion yuan, growing 10.7 percent. Atotal of 12.69 million urban jobs were added, and the average surveyedunemployment rate stood at 5.1 percent. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by0.9 percent. A basic equilibrium was maintained in the balance ofpayments. 


– China’s innovation capacity was strengthened. Ourstrategic science and technology capabilities were expanded at a faster pace.Major advances were registered in research on core technologies in key fields,and breakthroughs were made in manned spaceflight, Mars exploration, resourceexploration, energy projects and other areas. Corporate spending on researchand development grew by 15.5 percent. Integration of digital technology in thereal economy was accelerated.


– The economic structure and regional development priorities wererefined. Grain output reached a record high of 685 million metrictons. Value-added of the high-tech manufacturing sector grew by 18.2 percent,IT services and other producer services recorded rapid growth, and industrialchains became more resilient. Regional development strategies were wellimplemented, and new urbanization was steadily advanced.


– Reform and opening up were deepened. In key fields andsectors, a full range of major reforms were rolled out, and supply-sidestructural reform was deepened. New gains were made in the reform to streamlineadministration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services.The total number of market entities surpassed the 150-million mark. The Beltand Road Initiative saw steady high-quality development. China worked for theentry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement.The total volume of trade in goods grew by 21.4 percent, and growth of utilizedforeign investment was sustained.


– Ecological conservation was enhanced. Thanks to furthersteps taken to prevent and control pollution, the discharge of major pollutantscontinued to fall and the average concentration of fine particulate matter(PM2.5) dropped by 9.1 percent in cities at and above the prefecture level. Thefirst group of national parks were officially established. Significantimprovements were made in the quality of the environment.


– Living standards rose steadily. Per capita disposableincome increased by 8.1 percent in real terms. Achievements in povertyalleviation were consolidated and further expanded. Inputs in basic elderlycare, basic medical care, and social assistance were increased. New steps weretaken in the reform and development of education. Renovations began on 56,000old urban residential communities, benefiting close to 10 million households.


– Our gains in Covid-19 response were consolidated. Implementationof control measures became routine, and over 85 percent of the populationreceived a full course of vaccination. Local outbreaks were suppressed in aneffective and quick manner. By making these efforts, we ensured the health andsafety of the people and maintained normal order in work and life.


Reflecting on the past year, we can see that our achievements did not comeeasily. While the economy continued to recover from major shocks includingCovid-19, many new changes occurred in and outside of China, and the difficultyof keeping the economy running stably mounted. In the face of such difficulty,we fully implemented the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committeewith Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, followed the guiding principles of theCentral Economic Work Conference; applied the new development philosophy infull, in the right way, and in all fields of endeavor; took solid steps toensure stability on six key fronts and security in six key areas*, and madecross- and counter-cyclical adjustments with macro policies. We thuseffectively dealt with all risks and challenges that arose. Our main workover the past year was as follows.


1. We kept macro policy consistent and targeted and kept the majoreconomic indicators within the appropriate range. 

Our macro policies facilitated cross-cyclical adjustments and sustainedthe level of support necessary for economic recovery. We also took into accountthe need to leave ample policy space for meeting difficulties and challengesthis year. We established a regular mechanism to directly allocate budgetary funds toprefecture- and county-level governments and placed 2.8 trillion yuan ofcentral government funding under this mechanism. We also improved the way localgovernments issue and use special-purpose bonds. 

We implemented a prudent monetary policy to good effect and loweredrequired reserve ratios twice to facilitate the reduction of loan interestrates. We took well-considered steps to defuse local government debt risks anddealt prudently with major financial risks. We intensified policies tostabilize and expand employment, took solid measures to ensure employment forkey groups like college graduates, and encouraged business startups andinnovation. We took stronger steps to keep supply and prices of majorcommodities stable and to tackle supply shortages in coal and electricpower. 

Over the course of last year, all major macroeconomic indicators stayed inline with projected targets, the deficit-to-GDP ratio and macro leverage ratiodecreased, and China’s economy remained one of the fastest-growing economies inthe world.


2. We refined and implemented policies for easing the difficulties ofbusinesses and consolidated the foundation of economic recovery.

As over one hundred million market entities have given several hundredmillion people the opportunity to go into business or secure employment, wehave continued with the supportive macro-policy roadmaps and approaches thathave proved effective since the epidemic began. 

Tax and fee reductions introduced last year totaled more than one trillionyuan. In addition, tax payments were postponed for micro, small and medium enterprises(MSMEs) in manufacturing as well as coal-fired power plants and heating-supplyenterprises as a temporary measure. Tax and fee reductions have proved a directand effective way of helping enterprises ease their difficulties. In reality,they also help nurture business growth and cultivate sources of tax revenue.Last year, revenue generated from taxpaying market entities registered since2013 reached 4.76 trillion yuan. 

We strengthened the capacity of railway, highway, aviation and maritimetransportation as well as harbors. We boosted the credit supply to industriesand enterprises severely affected by Covid-19. We continued policies for microand small businesses to defer principal and interest repayments on loans andtake out more collateral-free loans. Inclusive finance lending to micro andsmall business by financial institutions increased by 27.3 percent, with thefigure rising to over 40 percent for large commercial banks, and overallfinancing costs of businesses dropped steadily. 


3. We deepened reform, expanded opening up, and continued to improve thebusiness environment. 

We worked harder to develop the underlying institutions for a marketsystem, and pushed forward reforms to ensure production factors are allocatedby the market. We continued to reduce the number of procedures and length oftime it takes for enterprises to gain government approval. More governmentservices were made available online. A package of successful practices in localreform were applied nationwide, and trials were conducted to improve thebusiness environment. 

We bolstered regulation and adopted new regulatory approaches, took actionagainst business monopolies, and prevented the unregulated expansion ofcapital, thus ensuring fair market competition. We continued implementation ofthe three-year action plan for SOE reform and supported the healthy developmentof private businesses. The reform to delink industry associations and chambersof commerce from government was basically completed. The Beijing Stock Exchangeand Guangzhou Futures Exchange were opened. Solid strides were made in reformsin agriculture, rural development, social programs, and ecologicalconservation. 

We deepened practical cooperation to jointly advance the Belt and RoadInitiative. Efforts to ensure stable performance in foreign trade andinvestment were intensified. We successfully hosted a number of major expos,including the China International Import Expo, the China Import and ExportFair, the China International Fair for Trade in Services, and the first ChinaInternational Consumer Products Expo. Comprehensive trials for further openingup of the services sector were expanded to four more areas, and new measuresfor developing the Hainan Free Trade Port were adopted.


4. We promoted innovation-driven development and stabilized industrial andsupply chains. 

We boosted the development of national laboratories and promotedimplementation of major science and technology programs. We reformed andrefined the management of central government funding for scientific andtechnological research, increased the proportion of indirect expenses forresearch projects, and gave institutes more decision-making power over theirresearch. 

We continued the additional tax deduction for R&D expenses andincreased this deduction to cover 100 percent of such expenses formanufacturing enterprises. Intellectual property right protection wasstrengthened. Weak links in the industrial chains of key industries werereinforced and upgraded. Digital and smart technologies were adopted intraditional industries at a faster rate, and emerging industries maintainedgood momentum for development. 


5. We promoted coordinated development between urban and rural areas andbetween regions and improved the structure of the economy. 

To ensure implementation of all major regional development strategies andthe strategy for coordinated regional development, we rolled out new supportingmeasures and launched several major projects. Urbanization with the focus oncounty seats was promoted. To help bolster agricultural production, we ensuredagricultural supplies and issued one-time subsidies totaling 20 billion yuan tograin growers. 

We advanced rural revitalization and designated 160 key counties toreceive assistance in pursuing rural revitalization. A five-year program toimprove the rural living environment also got under way.


6. We strengthened environmental protection and promoted sustainabledevelopment. 

We consolidated our gains in keeping the skies blue, waters clear, andland pollution-free. We encouraged farmers to use chemical fertilizer andpesticide more efficiently and promoted the recycling of livestock and poultrywaste. We continued major projects to protect and restore ecosystems, and fullyenforced the ten-year fishing ban on the Yangtze River. 

China’s installed capacity of renewable power exceeded one billionkilowatts. An action plan for peaking carbon emissions by 2030 was unveiled.The China Carbon Emission Trade Exchange was launched. We took active steps torespond to climate change.


7. We worked to ensure and improve the people’s wellbeing and accelerateddevelopment of social programs.

We intensified efforts to shore up weak links in rural compulsoryeducation, and increased subsidies in the nutrition improvement program forcompulsory-education students in rural areas, benefiting over 37 millionstudents.

We reduced the homework load and eased the off-campus tutoring burdenon students in compulsory education. We surpassed the targets set in thethree-year enrollment expansion initiative for vocational colleges. The cap forgovernment-subsidized student loans was raised by 4,000 yuan per person per year,benefiting over five million students. 

The basic pension for retirees was increased. Benefits were raised forentitled groups. To improve assistance and support for those in need, the scopeof the subsistence allowance scheme was expanded to include people with seriousillness or severe disability from families just outside the margin ofeligibility. 

We reformed the system for disease prevention and control. Outpatientbills for more common illnesses and chronic diseases became reimbursable underthe basic medical insurance scheme, and 60 percent of cross-provincialinpatient medical expenses were directly settled where they were incurred. Wetightened up regulation and supervision of drugs and vaccines.

The three-child policy was implemented. Elderly services were improved.Government-subsidized rental housing was increased at a faster pace. Wedeveloped cultural programs and the cultural sector, and launched new culturalprojects to benefit the public. A sound online environment was fostered. 

We actively carried out public fitness activities. Chinese athletesachieved great success in the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo. And thanksto meticulous preparation, China has presented the world with a simple, safe,and splendid 2022 Winter Olympic Games. The Paralympic Games, which has justopened, will undoubtedly also be a great success. 


8. We made progress in building a rule of law government, developed newways of conducting governance, and maintained social harmony and stability.

We submitted 10 legislative proposals to the Standing Committee of theNational People’s Congress (NPC) for deliberation, and formulated or revised 15sets of administrative regulations. We conscientiously handled the proposals ofNPC deputies and CPPCC National Committee members. The Outline for Building aLaw-Based Government (2021–2025) was promulgated. Audit-based oversight wasenhanced. The State Council continued its accountability inspections, andfurther implemented the Internet plus model of inspection. New approaches wereadopted in conducting primary-level governance in urban and rural areas. Wemade solid headway in handling public complaints and clearing the backlog ofcases. 

We took stronger steps to ensure workplace safety and strengthenedemergency response management. Our ability to safeguard national security wasenhanced. We improved the crime prevention and control system, worked to crackdown on organized crime and root out local criminal gangs on an ongoing basis,and fought telecom and cyber fraud as a priority. During severe flooding andother disasters that hit some parts of the country last year, governmentauthorities and departments were actively involved in disaster prevention,relief, and reconstruction and earnestly strived to protect people’s lives andproperty.


We implemented the Party Central Committee’s strategic decision toexercise full and strict Party self-governance. We carried out activities tostudy the history of the CPC, and did more to improve Party conduct, build agovernment of integrity, and fight corruption. We strictly complied with thecentral Party leadership’s eight-point decision on improving work conduct, keptup our efforts to tackle pointless formalities, bureaucratism, hedonism andextravagance, and took further steps to ease the burdens of those working onthe ground. 


We advanced China’s major-country diplomacy on all fronts. President XiJinping and other Party and state leaders attended, via video link, major diplomaticevents, including the 76th UN General Assembly, the 16th G20 Leaders’ Summit,the 28th APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting, the 13th BRICS Summit, the SpecialSummit to Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue Relations,the opening ceremony of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum onChina-Africa Cooperation, the East Asia leaders’ meetings on cooperation andthe 13th Asia-Europe Meeting. We also successfully hosted a number of majordiplomatic events. 

We promoted the building of a human community with a shared future,fostered global partnerships, and played an active part in the reform anddevelopment of the global governance system. We advanced internationalcooperation on Covid-19 response and worked with all other countries to respondto issues and challenges global in nature. We have thus contributed our shareto promoting world peace and development. 


Fellow Deputies, 


We owe our achievements last year to the strong leadership of the PartyCentral Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the sound guidance of XiJinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, andthe concerted efforts of the Party, the armed forces and Chinese people of allethnic groups. 

On behalf of the State Council, I wish to express sincere gratitude to allour people, and to all other political parties, people’s organizations, andpublic figures from all sectors of society. I express heartfelt appreciation toour fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao specialadministrative regions, in Taiwan, and overseas. I also wish to expressheartfelt thanks to the governments of other countries, internationalorganizations and friends across the world who have shown understanding andsupport for us in China as we pursue modernization.


While recognizing our achievements, we are also very clear about theproblems and challenges before us.

The Covid-19 pandemic is still ongoing. The world economic recovery lacksdrive, and commodity prices remain high and are prone to fluctuation. All ofthis is making our external environment increasingly volatile, grave anduncertain. 

In pursing economic development, China is under the triple pressures ofshrinking demand, disrupted supply and weakening expectations. Local Covid-19cases are still occurring sporadically. The recovery of consumption andinvestment is sluggish. It is getting more difficult to maintain steady growthin exports, the supply of energy resources and raw materials remainsinadequate, and imported inflationary pressure has increased. Many MSMEs andself-employed individuals face difficulty in production and businessoperations, and the task of stabilizing employment is more formidable. Ourcapacity to support innovation is lacking in key areas. The budgetaryimbalances of some local governments have become more pronounced, and manypotential risks are present in the economic and financial sectors. In areasthat are important to the public wellbeing, numerous issues need to beaddressed. 

There is also room for improvement in the work of government. Pointlessformalities and bureaucratism remain an acute issue. Cases of becoming detachedfrom reality and acting against the public will are still frequent. Some localgovernments use one-size-fits-all or campaign-style approaches in policyimplementation. A small number of officials either shirk theirresponsibilities, fail to do their jobs, or behave irresponsibly. Someofficials, by disregarding serious infringements on the rights and interests ofthe people, have been derelict in their duties. Corruption remains a commonproblem in some sectors.

We must be more mindful of potential difficulties, face problems andchallenges squarely, make every effort to deliver a satisfactory performance,and do our utmost to live up to people’s expectations. 



II. OverallRequirements and Policy Orientation for Economic and Social Development in2022




This year is of greatsignificance in the cause of the Party and the country, as the Communist Partyof China will hold its 20th National Congress. For the government to deliver,we must, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee withComrade Xi Jinping at its core, do the following:     

  • follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought onSocialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era;

  • implement the guiding principles of the Party’s 19thNational Congress and all plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee;

  • carry forward the great founding spirit of theParty;

  • act on the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuringstability;

  • apply the new development philosophy in full, in the right way, and in allfields of endeavor and move faster to create a new pattern of development;

  • deepen reform and opening up in all respects;

  • pursue innovation-driven development;

  • promote high-quality development;

  • advance supply-side structural reform as the main task;

  • respond to Covid-19 and pursue economic and social development in awell-coordinated way;

  • ensure both development and security;

  • continue to ensure stability on six key fronts and maintain security insix key areas;

  • keep working to improve people’s lives;

  • strive to maintain stable macroeconomic performance;

  • keep major economic indicators within an appropriate range; and

  • maintain overall social stability.


These efforts will enable us to pave theway for a successful20th National Party Congress.




A comprehensive analysis of evolving dynamics at home and abroad indicatesthat this year our country will encounter many more risks and challenges, andwe must keep pushing to overcome them. The harder things get, the moreconfident we must be, and the more solid steps we must take to deliveroutcomes.


The fundamentals of our economy remain unchanged, and they will maintainlong-term growth. We have many favorable conditions for sustaining development.Most notably, our people, in their hundreds of millions, aspire to a betterlife, have huge potential for starting businesses and engaging in innovation,and are resolved to overcome all difficulties together. We have also acquired awealth of experience in dealing with major risks and challenges. There is nodoubt but that China’s economy will withstand any new downward pressure andcontinue growing steadily long into the future.




The main projected targets for development this year are as follows:

  • GDP growth of around5.5 percent

  • over 11 million newurban jobs

  • a surveyed urbanunemployment rate of no more than 5.5 percent

  • CPI increase ofaround 3 percent

  • growth in personalincome that is basically in step with economic growth

  • steady increases inboth the volume and quality of imports and exports

  • a basic equilibriumin the balance of payments

  • grain output of over650 million metric tons

  • further improvementin the environment

  • continued reductionin the discharge of major pollutants

  • energy consumptionper unit of GDP to be assessed with appropriate flexibility within theframework of the 14th Five-Year Plan;

  • and the exclusion ofnewly added renewable energy and coal, petroleum, and natural gas consumed asraw materials in the total amount of energy consumption.




The above economic growth target is based mainly on the need to maintainstable employment, meet basic living needs, and guard against risks. This targetis also in keeping with the average growth rates of the last two years and thegoals of the 14th Five-Year Plan. It represents a medium-high rate of growthgiven our large economic aggregate, and demonstrates our ability to moveproactively. But achieving this goal will require arduous efforts.




To fulfill the development goals andtasks for the year, we should pursue prudent and effective macro policies,micro policies that can continuously energize market entities, and structuralpolicies that facilitate smooth flows in the economy.Science and technology policies should be fullyimplemented, reform and opening up policies should lend impetus to development,regional policies should ensure more balanced and coordinated development, andsocial policies should meet basic living needs. All of us involved must adoptdetailed and effective measures to meet these major policy requirements andcreate synergy for driving growth.




Macro policies should be kept consistent and made more effective. Theproactive fiscal policy should be more effectual, more targeted, and moresustainable. The prudent monetary policy should be both flexible andappropriate, with reasonably ample liquidity being maintained. The employment-first policy should be pursued withintensified efforts to deliver the desired outcomes. These policies should produceeffects early on, and the policy tools we have in reserve should be promptlydeployed to ensure stable economic performance.




We will continue effective routine Covid-19control. To prevent inbound cases and domestic resurgences, we need toconstantly refine epidemic containment measures, strengthen epidemic controlsin port-of-entry cities, step up efforts to study and protect against virusvariants, accelerate R&D of new vaccines and effective medicines, continueimplementing vaccination programs, and give full play to the unique role of traditionalChinese medicine. Occurrences of local cases must be handled in a scientific andtargeted manner, and the normal order of work and life must be ensured.




In our work this year, we must make economic stability our top priorityand pursue progress while ensuring stability. In the face of new downwardpressure, the task of ensuring stable growth needs to occupy an even moreprominent position. All localities and government departments should fulfilltheir responsibilities for maintaining stable macroeconomic performance byproactively introducing pro-stability policies.


We should take coordinated moves to keep growth stable, promote structuraladjustment, and carry out reform. We should work faster to transform the growthmodel, and say no to an extensive development model. We should follow afact-based approach, and bear in mind the fundamental dimension of China’snational context, that is, it is still in the primary stage of socialism. Weshould manage our own affairs well, and respect the laws of development, thereality on the ground, and the needs of the people.


We should work in creative ways in light of actual conditions and motivateall stakeholders to pursue development endeavors. We should promote both anefficient market and a well-functioning government, and we should be adept atusing reform and innovation to boost market dynamism and social creativity. Wemust act on the people-centered development philosophy and rely on the effortsof everyone to promote prosperity for all, so as to keep realizing the people’saspirations for a better life.



III. Major Tasks for 2022




This year, we face heavy tasks and many challenges in economic and socialdevelopment. We should follow the decisions and requirements of the PartyCentral Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, apply the newdevelopment philosophy in full, in the right way, and in all fields ofendeavor, move faster to create a new pattern of development, and promotehigh-quality development, so as to deliver solid outcomes in all areas of ourwork.




1. Achieving stable macroeconomic performance and keeping major economicindicators within the appropriate range


We must continue to ensure stability on six fronts and maintain securityin six areas. We have both macro-policy tools and space available to us, and weshould use them to intensify cross- and counter-cyclical adjustments and toprovide strong support for a stable economic performance.




We willsee that the proactive fiscal policy is more effective. We have set thedeficit-to-GDP ratio for the year at around 2.8 percent, slightly lower thanlast year, and this will boost fiscal sustainability. It is projected thatfiscal revenue will continue to grow in 2022. In addition, we also have availableto us the surplus profits of state-owned financial institutions and state monopolybusiness operations from recent years turned over in accordance with the lawand funds transferred from the Central Budget Stabilization Fund. This willmake it possible for government to increase expenditures by more than twotrillion yuan over last year, putting significantly greater fiscal resources atour disposal. New funds will be channeled to local levels of government andused mainly to ease the difficulties of enterprises, stabilize employment, meetliving needs, and increase consumption and demand.


Thisyear, central government expenditures will rise by 3.9 percent, but thebudgetary spending of central government departments will continue to registernegative growth. Central government transfer payments to local governments willcome to close to 9.8 trillion yuan. This figure represents a growth of 18 percent,or around 1.5 trillion yuan, and is the largest increase in recent years. Thecentral government will place more budgetary funds under the mechanism fordirect allocation to prefecture- and county-level governments, andprovincial-level governments should also provide additional fiscal support tothese levels. It is imperative that local governments are both able andmotivated to carry out policies that will benefit businesses and people.




Thisyear, central government expenditures will rise by 3.9 percent, but the budgetaryspending of central government departments will continue to register negativegrowth. Central government transfer payments to local governments will come toclose to 9.8 trillion yuan. This figure represents a growth of 18 percent, or around1.5 trillion yuan, and is the largest increase in recent years. The centralgovernment will place more budgetary funds under the mechanism for directallocation to prefecture- and county-level governments, and provincial-levelgovernments should also provide additional fiscal support to these levels. Itis imperative that local governments are both able and motivated to carry outpolicies that will benefit businesses and people.




We willuse government investment funds to stimulate and expand effective investment. This year, special-purposebonds for local governments will total 3.65 trillion yuan. We will, taking aperformance-oriented approach, ensure that investment funds and otherproduction factors stay with projects they are allocated to, whileappropriately widening the scope of usage for such factors. We will supportfollow-up financing for ongoing projects, and begin construction on majorprojects that are ready for launching, new types of infrastructure, and renovationsof outdated public facilities.


Thelion’s share of investment in China comes from the non-government sector. Wewill give full play to the leveraging role of major projects and governmentinvestment and refine relevant supporting policies to keep non-governmentinvestors fully motivated.




Governmentwill keep its belt tightened and keep spending low to benefit the people. We will improve the mix ofgovernment spending so as to ensure funding for key areas and strictly controlgeneral expenditures. Budgetary funds and assets sitting idle will be put intogood use. Governments at every level need to operate within their means andeconomize where possible, and central and provincial-level governments shouldtake the lead in this regard.


Managementof fiscal receipts and outlays will be tightened up, and wasteful and excessivespending will be prohibited. We will prevent the construction of new governmentbuildings in violation of regulations. No vanity projects will be tolerated,and anyone who violates fiscal discipline or squanders public funds will beinvestigated and severely punished. We must ensure that our precious funds areused in areas that are critical to development and to meet the urgent needs ofthe people.




We willstep up implementation of the prudent monetary policy. We will use monetary policytools to adjust both the monetary aggregate and the monetary structure, so asto provide more robust support for the real economy. We will expand the scaleof new loans, see that increases in money supply and aggregate financing aregenerally in step with nominal economic growth, and keep the macro leverageratio generally stable. The RMB exchange rate will be kept generally stable atan adaptive, balanced level.


We willfurther improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, channel morefunds into key areas and weak links, and expand the coverage of inclusivefinance. Financial institutions will be encouraged to lower real loan interestrates and cut fees, so as to truly make it easier for market entities to accessfinancing and achieve a considerable drop in overall financing costs.




We willensure food and energy security. We will ensure the supply of grain and other majoragricultural products, as well as the supply and price stability of energy andimportant raw materials, and guarantee sufficient electricity to meet people’sliving needs and conduct normal business production and operations. We willimplement a comprehensive resource conservation strategy. To enhance China’scapacity for resource production and supply, we will step up petroleum, naturalgas and mineral exploration and development, improve the national strategicgoods reserve system, and ensure the supply of primary products. We will crackdown on price gouging, and ensure price levels are kept generally stable.




We willprevent and defuse major risks. We will continue to guard against and addresseconomic and financial risks in accordance with the fundamental principles ofmaintaining overall stability, ensuring coordination, implementingcategory-based policies, and defusing risks through targeted efforts. We willsee that local governments fulfill their responsibilities, the competentgovernment departments tighten regulation, and enterprises shoulder primaryresponsibility. We will make stronger efforts to give early-warning of risks,enhance risk prevention and control mechanisms, and build capacities forresponding to risks. A fund for ensuring financial stability will beestablished, the deposit insurance system and industry guarantee funds will bebrought fully into play, and market- and law-based methods will be used todefuse risks and potential dangers and to respond to external shocks. All theseefforts will ensure that no systemic risks arise.




2.Keeping the operations of market entities stable and maintaining job securityby strengthening macro policies


We willimprove policies for easing the burdens and difficulties of market entities andcreate a stronger foundation for achieving a stable and sounder economicperformance.




We willimplement a new package of tax-and-fee policies to support enterprises. We will continue to taketemporary steps and institutional measures and apply policies for both taxreductions and refunds.


First,we will extend tax and fee reduction policies that support manufacturing, microand small enterprises and self-employed individuals, and expand the scale andscope of these policies. A temporary exemption on VAT payments will be grantedto small taxpayers. Corporate income tax on annual taxable income of betweenone million and three million yuan will be halved once again for micro andsmall enterprises. Local governments should also adopt effective tax-and-feereduction steps based on local conditions and in accordance with the law tomaintain the scale of tax-and-fee reductions and keep market expectationsstable.


Second,to improve the cash flow of enterprises, promote employment- andconsumption-driven investment, and further improve the system for refundingexcess input VAT credits, we will issue VAT credit refunds ahead of time thisyear on a big scale. We will give priority to micro and small enterprises,refunding outstanding VAT credits to them in one lump sum by the end of June,while also fully refunding newly added credits. With a focus on supportingmanufacturing, we will work to fully resolve problems in refunding VAT creditsin manufacturing, research and technical services, environmental protection,electricity and gas, and transportation industries. Such a substantial increasein VAT credit refunds will help strongly boost market confidence.


Taxrefunds and cuts are expected to total 2.5 trillion yuan this year. VAT creditrefunds will account for 1.5 trillion yuan of this sum and all go straight toenterprises. The central government will provide greater fiscal support forlocal governments and allocate fiscal subsidies directly to the prefecture andcounty levels. Local governments and relevant departments should develop soundsystems to allocate funds more effectively. We must ensure that the criticallyimportant policy of tax refunds and cuts takes full effect, in order to provideenterprises with timely assistance and help them generate fresh vitality.




We willencourage the financial sector to provide more effective support to the realeconomy. We willmake good use of instruments to support inclusive loans to micro and smallbusinesses, and increase re-lending for agricultural and small enterprises. Wewill strengthen supervision and assessment to promote a marked increase ininclusive loans to micro and small businesses and a further rise in the proportionof collateral-free loans and first-time loans. We will see that financialinstitutions have a good understanding of credit policies, ensure continuedfinancing support for industries and enterprises hit hard by Covid-19, andprevent industry-wide lending restrictions, forced early repayment of loans,and arbitrary termination of loan agreements.


We willmake good use of policy-backed and development finance. We will promote thesharing of enterprise credit information and move faster to achieve informationintegration and sharing between financial institutions and tax offices,customs, electric utilities and other agencies. The government financingguaranty will be expanded to cover more micro and small businesses. We willstrive to create a favorable financing environment and help resolve thefinancing difficulties of enterprises in the real economy, especially MSMEs.




We willhelp lower business costs. We will rectify excessive surcharges levied byutility companies, and support local governments in adopting temporarypreferential policies on electricity use for industries which are experiencingparticular difficulty. We will encourage large platform enterprises to lowerservice fees and lighten the burden on small and medium businesses. Further stepswill be taken to regulate and overhaul fees charged by industry associations,chambers of commerce, and intermediaries.


We willlaunch initiatives to end unjustified charges levied on businesses, and developmechanisms for coordinated regulation and joint punishment. We will fullyinvestigate and punish the imposition of arbitrary charges, fines, and quotas.


We willintensify efforts to get outstanding payments owed to small and mediumenterprises cleared. We will standardize the usage of commercial acceptancebills, and ensure that government bodies, public institutions, and state-ownedenterprises (SOEs) take the lead in clearing overdue payments.


Catering,hospitality, retail, culture, tourism, and passenger transport sectors have alarge capacity for employment. However, they have been severely affected byCovid-19. Support policies will be weighted more heavily toward enterprises in  these sectors to help them stay afloat and getthrough challenging times with bright prospects.




We willfully implement all measures to stabilize employment. Temporary policies such asreductions to premiums for unemployment insurance and workers’ compensationwill be extended. We will continue the policy of refunding unemploymentinsurance premiums for enterprises that make no cuts or minimal cuts to staffnumbers, with a marked increase in the proportion of refunds going to MSMEs.


Over 10million students are due to graduate from college this year, and we will giveour graduates stronger guidance and policy support and uninterrupted servicesto ensure they can find jobs or start businesses. We will help ex-servicemembers get resettled and re-employed, broaden employment channels for ruralmigrant workers, and assist people with disabilities and members ofzero-employment families in securing jobs.


We willdo more to promote business startups and innovation initiatives, and improvethe service capacity of entrepreneurship and innovation platforms. We willimprove services and social security policies concerning flexible employment,and launch trials of occupational injury insurance for people in new forms ofemployment. We will work hard to prevent and stop gender, age, and educationdiscrimination in the workplace in order to create a fair employment environment.We will strengthen oversight and enforcement of labor protection laws and focuson addressing acute issues that are infringing upon employees’ lawful rightsand interests.


We willmake public employment services more targeted. We will continue to carry outvocational skills training on a large scale and establish a number of publictraining bases through joint construction and sharing initiatives. A total of100 billion yuan from the unemployment insurance fund will be used to supportenterprises in maintaining stable payrolls and providing training programs, andwe will speed up training of skilled workers who are urgently needed to promotehigh-quality development of manufacturing. These efforts will enable moreworkers to acquire marketable skills and large numbers of talented people tocome to the fore in all sectors.




3.Steadfastly deepening reform to strengthen market vitality and internalmomentum for development


Todevelop a high-standard socialist market economy, we should give play to theroles of both the government and the market, seeing that the market plays thedecisive role in the allocation of resources and the government better fulfillsits role.




We willstep up efforts to transform government functions. We will do more to build a high-standardmarket system, carry out a comprehensive pilot reform for the market-basedallocation of production factors, and strive to accelerate the development of aunified domestic market. We will deepen reforms to streamline administration anddelegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services with a focus oncreating a market-oriented, law-based and internationalized businessenvironment. We will make sure that at the same time as government approval fora certain matter is canceled or delegated to lower-level authorities,corresponding regulatory steps are taken and responsibilities are assumed.


We willcontinue to expand market access. List-based management will be fullyimplemented for matters requiring government approval. We will work to build adigital government and promote the sharing of government data. We will continueto reduce various certification requirements and provide more governmentservices on a cross-provincial basis. We will basically realize mutualnationwide recognition of electronic licenses and certificates to facilitateenterprises with trans-regional operations, and provide people with greateraccess to important services outside of their home jurisdiction. We willfacilitate integrated access to government services, and introduce simplerprocedures for the registration of immovable property and motor vehicleinspections.


We willstrengthen the regulatory responsibilities of government and ensure that allcompetent authorities, relevant departments and local governments fulfill theirregulatory responsibilities for matters under their jurisdiction, so as toprevent any absence of regulation. To ensure regulation is effective, we willwork faster to establish a comprehensive, tiered and multifaceted system toregulate all stages, from start to finish, in all sectors. We will act quicklyto improve regulatory rules for key industries, emerging sectors, and sectorswith foreign involvement and introduce new measures to make regulation moretargeted and more effective.


We willfurther the implementation of policies to ensure fair competition and takestronger action against monopolies and unfair competition to ensure awell-ordered and fair market environment.




We willpromote the common development of enterprises under all forms of ownership. We will uphold and furtherimprove the basic socialist economic system, and work unswervingly both toconsolidate and develop the public sector and to encourage, support and guidedevelopment of the non-public sector.


We musthave a good understanding of the defining features of capital and the way itworks, so as to support and guide its well-regulated and sound development. Wewill provide equitable and law-based protection to the property rights andindependent management rights of enterprises and to the lawful rights andinterests of entrepreneurs. By doing so, we will create a favorable environmentfor enterprises under all forms of ownership to compete and grow together.


We willcomplete the three-year action plan for SOE reform, move faster to adjust andimprove the layout and structure of the state-owned sector, deepen the reformto introduce mixed ownership in SOEs, and tighten regulation of state-ownedcapital. SOEs will be encouraged to better play their role in supporting anddriving development of industrial and supply chains with a focus on theirprimary responsibilities and core businesses.


We willimplement policies and measures to support the development of the privatesector, and encourage and guide private enterprises in reform and innovation.We will foster a cordial and clean relationship between government andbusiness. To promote the entrepreneurial spirit, we will solicit the opinionsof market entities more when we are designing enterprise-related policies, respectthe laws of the market, and help entrepreneurs to devote themselves to creatingstart-ups and pursuing innovation and to develop their businesses free fromundue concern.




We willadvance reforms of the fiscal, taxation, and financial systems. We will further reform theperformance-based budgetary management and strengthen budgetary constraints andtransparency. Reform will be carried out in fiscal systems below the provinciallevel. We will improve the tax collection and administration system and crackdown on tax evasion and fraud in accordance with the law.


We willstrengthen and refine financial regulation, further reform the equitystructures and corporate governance of small and medium banks, and move fasterto deal with nonperforming assets. We will improve the system for supportingdebt financing by private enterprises, achieve full implementation of theregistration-based IPO system, and promote steady and sound development of thecapital market.




4.Further implementing the innovation-driven development strategy andstrengthening the foundation of the real economy


We needto promote scientific and technological innovation, so as to upgrade ourindustries, eliminate the bottlenecks in supply, and realize high-qualitydevelopment through innovation.




We willraise our capacity for scientific and technological innovation. We will press ahead with the10-year action plan on basic research to ensure stable support over the longterm, and increase the share of basic research spending in the country’s totalR&D expenditures. We will implement a three-year action plan for reformingthe science and technology management system, reinforce China’s strategicscience and technology capabilities, further develop national laboratories andkey national laboratories, and leverage the strengths of universities,colleges, and research institutes.


We willimprove the approval procedures for major science and technology projects andtheir management, and further reform the assessment and incentive systems forscientific research. We will support local governments in increasing spendingon science and technology and encourage innovations with distinctive regionalfeatures. Greater efforts will be made to increase people’s scientificknowledge.


We willcontinue to engage in international scientific and technological cooperation,and step up efforts to build talent centers and innovation hubs of globalimportance. We will improve institutions and mechanisms for talent development,champion the spirit of our nation’s scientists, provide more support to youngresearchers, and encourage outstanding people of all types to devote themselvesto research and realize their full potential.




We willprovide stronger incentives to promote innovation among enterprises. We will reinforce theprincipal position of enterprises in innovation, continue promotingbreakthroughs in core technologies in key fields, promote greater synergybetween industry, academia, research, and application, and facilitate thecommercialization and application of advances in science and technology. Wewill strengthen intellectual property rights protection and application.


We willpromote the development of venture capital, develop new financial products andservices to support scientific and technological development, and upgradeintermediary services for science and technology.


We willenhance the policy on granting additional tax deductions for R&D costs,raising the deduction coverage for small and medium sci-tech enterprises from75 percent to 100 percent. We will grant tax breaks to enterprises that invest inbasic research, and improve our policies on accelerated depreciation ofequipment and tools and on preferential corporate income tax for new- andhigh-tech enterprises. All these measures amount to a large injection ofgovernment funding to support enterprises’ innovation endeavors. We must fullyimplement all policy incentives for innovation to encourage enterprises toinvest more in R&D and thus generate and build up new drivers of growth.




We willboost the core competitiveness of manufacturing. To promote stable performance ofindustry, we will ensure supply of raw materials and key spare parts, andlaunch initiatives to have leading enterprises fully play their role insafeguarding the stability and security of industrial and supply chains. Wewill encourage financial institutions to increase medium- and long-term lendingto the manufacturing sector.


We willlaunch a group of industrial foundation reengineering projects, help upgradetraditional industries, promote smart manufacturing, accelerate the developmentof advanced manufacturing clusters, and launch a national program to fosterclusters of strategic emerging industries. We will work to nurture specializedand sophisticated enterprises that produce new and unique products and providethem with more support in terms of funding, personnel, and development ofbusiness incubation platforms. We will continue efforts to build China into amanufacturer of quality and steer Chinese manufacturing toward the medium- andhigh-end.




We willencourage development of the digital economy. We will strengthen overall planning forthe Digital China initiative, build more digital information infrastructure,develop an integrated national system of big data centers step by step, andapply 5G technology on a larger scale. We will advance digitalization ofindustries, and build smart cities and digital villages. We will acceleratedevelopment of the Industrial Internet, build up digital industries such asintegrated circuits and artificial intelligence, and enhance China’stechnological innovation and supply capacities for key software and hardware.To better promote economic development and enrich people’s lives, we willimprove governance of the digital economy, develop data markets, tap thepotential of data as a factor of production, and enhance data-use capacities.




5.Expanding domestic demand and promoting coordinated regional development andnew urbanization


Topromote unimpeded flows in the economy, we will remove all impediments tosmooth production, distribution, circulation, and consumption and see thatdomestic demand plays a bigger role in driving economic growth.




We willpromote the sustained recovery of consumption. We will boost personal incomes throughmultiple channels, improve the income distribution system, and increasepeople’s spending power. We will strive for in-depth integration of online andoffline consumption, promote recovery in consumption of consumer services, andfoster new forms and models of consumer spending. We will continue to supportthe purchase of new-energy vehicles, and encourage local governments to promotespending on green and smart home appliances in rural areas as well as thereplacement of old home appliances.


We willstep up the construction of supporting facilities for community elderly andchild care, and increase support for such projects in the aspects of planning,land use and building use. Domestic services will be upgraded and expanded. Wewill strengthen county-level commercial systems and develop e-commerce andexpress delivery services in rural areas. We will improve the quality ofproducts and services, better protect the rights and interests of consumers,ensure public demand is met, and encourage people to spend.




We willincrease effective investment. In line with major national strategies and the 14thFive-Year Plan, we will make proactive investments in infrastructure asappropriate. We will construct major water conservancy projects, integratedmultidimensional transportation networks and important energy bases andfacilities. The upgrading of urban pipelines, including those for gas and watersupply as well as sewage, will be accelerated. Flood prevention and drainagefacilities will be improved, and the building of underground utility tunnelswill continue.


Investmentfrom the central government budget will reach 640 billion yuan this year. Thegovernment will make improving the people’s wellbeing an investment priorityand work harder to shore up weak links in areas that are important to people’slives. We will deepen reform of the investment approval system, ensure theprovision of land, energy and other factors of production, and keep energyconsumption of major national projects under separate management. We will alsoimprove the investment mix and remove impediments to investment so as to fullyleverage its critical role.




We willpromote balanced and coordinated development among regions. We will fully implement allmajor regional development strategies and the strategy for coordinated regionaldevelopment. We will promote coordinated development of theBeijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, development of the Yangtze Economic Belt,development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, integrateddevelopment of the Yangtze River Delta, and ecological conservation andhigh-quality development in the Yellow River basin. We will advance theconstruction of Xiongan New Area according to high standards and qualityrequirements and support development of Beijing municipal administrativecenter.


We willusher in a new phase of large-scale development in the western region, promotebreakthroughs in the revitalization of the northeast, spur high-qualitydevelopment of the central region, and encourage the eastern region toaccelerate its pace of modernization. We will support phased trans-regionalrelocation of industries as well as regional cooperation, and also support oldrevolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, and border areas inaccelerating development. We will develop the maritime economy and build Chinainto a strong maritime country.


Majoreconomically developed provinces should leverage their strength to play abigger role in driving development of the whole country. Regions experiencingeconomic difficulty should make full use of state support policies to tap theirpotential and stimulate economic recovery.




We willimprove new urbanization initiatives. We will proceed with urban renewal in awell-conceived way. We will step up construction of public utilities andbolster capacities to prevent and mitigate natural disasters; identify andaddress safety hazards in old buildings and facilities; renovate another groupof old residential communities in urban areas and support the installation ofelevators in old residential buildings; and promote the development ofbarrier-free environments and renovation of public facilities for theconvenience of senior citizens.


We willimprove the systems for providing basic public services to people in places oftheir permanent residence and strengthen infrastructure in county seats. Steadysteps will be taken to develop city clusters and metropolitan areas and topromote coordinated development of cities of different sizes and small towns.We will promote the development of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone. Strictstandards will be applied in the re-designation of counties as cities or citydistricts.


In thecourse of planning and construction in urban and rural areas, we will protectand keep alive our historical and cultural heritage and promote efficient andintensive use of land. We will advance a new, people-centered type of urbanizationto ensure that life becomes more and more fulfilling for our people.




6.Boosting agricultural production and promoting all-around rural revitalization


We willrefine and strengthen policies in support of agriculture, continue promotingdevelopment in areas lifted out of poverty, ensure good harvests, and promotegrowth in rural incomes.




We willstep up efforts to ensure stable production and sufficient supply of grain andother important agricultural products. We will keep total grain acreage at astable level, refine the mix of grain crops, strengthen management over thelate seeding of wheat on summer-grain farmland, and increase the production ofsoybeans and other oilseed crops. We will raise the minimum purchase prices ofrice and wheat as appropriate.


Toensure reasonable returns for grain growers and incentivize majorgrain-producing areas, we will ensure the provision of agricultural suppliessuch as chemical fertilizers at stable prices, continue to provide agriculturalsupply subsidies to grain growers, and step up support for majorgrain-producing areas. To ensure the area of farmland remains above the redlineof 120 million hectares, we will designate a sufficient amount of good land aspermanent basic cropland, and firmly stop any attempts to use cropland for anypurpose other than agriculture and specifically grain production. We will stepup efforts to upgrade low- and medium-yield cropland, increase the area ofhigh-standard cropland by 6.67 million hectares, and construct or upgrade anumber of medium and large irrigated areas. We will intensify conservation ofchernozem soil, make comprehensive use of saline-alkali lands, and carry outthe third national survey of soils. Support will be given to water-efficientagriculture and dry farming in the Yellow River basin.


We willrevitalize the seed industry at a faster pace, redouble efforts to develop andapply scientific and technological breakthroughs in agriculture, and upgradeagricultural machinery and equipment. We will enhance our capacity to preventand control meteorological disasters affecting agriculture as well as animaland plant diseases. We will see that hog production is better regulated andensure the production and supply of livestock, poultry and aquatic products andvegetables. Development of modern protected agriculture will be accelerated. Wewill provide support to boost cotton and sugarcane farming.


Alllocal governments shoulder responsibility for safeguarding China’s foodsecurity. Those localities that rely on grain from other areas must do betterin keeping their grain output stable. Everyone must work together to ensurethat the country’s “rice bag” and “vegetable basket” are well-filled, and thatwe have a secure food supply for more than 1.4 billion Chinese people.




We willfully consolidate and build on our achievements in poverty elimination. We will implement bettermonitoring and assistance mechanisms to prevent people from slipping back intopoverty and see that people do not return to impoverishment in large numbers.We will support areas that have been lifted out of poverty in developingdistinctive local businesses, and bolster labor collaboration and vocationalskills training to help people who are no longer in poverty steadily increasetheir incomes.


We willenhance the self-development capacity of areas that are no longer in poverty.Stronger support measures will be adopted for key counties receiving assistancefor rural revitalization; follow-up support will be given to people who havebeen relocated from inhospitable areas; collaboration between eastern andwestern regions and targeted and nongovernmental assistance efforts will beintensified; and the “10,000 private enterprises revitalizing 10,000 villages”initiative will be launched.




We willsteadily and prudently advance rural reform and development. We will run trials onextending the rural land contracts of whole counties by another 30 years on theexpiration of second-round contracts. We will deepen the reform of supply andmarketing cooperatives, collective property rights, collective forest tenure,state forestry areas and farms, and state farms. We will actively develop newcollective economies in rural areas. We will improve financial services inrural areas to accelerate the development of the rural business sector. We willalso expand county economies.


We willapply strict standards to the revocation and amalgamation of villages, protectboth traditional villages and the features of our countryside, and enhance theguiding role of rural development plans. We will launch rural initiatives toimprove infrastructure, such as water, electricity and gas supplies, roads, andmail and communications services, and upgrade rural toilets and sewage andrefuse treatment facilities based on local conditions. We will furthercultivate civic virtue in villages and towns. We will work harder to clear wagearrears owed to rural migrant workers, support rural migrant workers in findingjobs and starting businesses, and do everything possible to create more waysfor rural people to increase their incomes from nonagricultural work.




7.Pursuing higher-standard opening up and promoting stable growth of foreigntrade and investment


We willmake full use of international and domestic markets and resources, continue toexpand international economic cooperation and trade, and push for in-depthreform and high-quality development by promoting high-standard opening up




We willadopt a package of steps to stabilize foreign trade. We will expand the coverageof export credit insurance for micro, small and medium foreign trade firms,strengthen export credit support, refine foreign exchange services, expeditethe process for export rebates, and help foreign trade enterprises receiveorders and maintain production. We will move faster to develop new forms andmodels of foreign trade, give full play to the role of cross-border e-commerce,and support the establishment of a number of overseas warehouses.


We willactively increase imports of quality products and services. We will explore newways to develop trade in services and digital trade, and implement a negativelist for cross-border trade in services. The reform to simplify customsclearance will be deepened, and the building of an international logisticservices system will be accelerated to help lower costs and raise efficiency inforeign trade.




We willmake greater use of foreign investment. We will see that the negative list forforeign investment is fully observed and ensure national treatment for allforeign-invested enterprises. We will encourage foreign-invested enterprises tomove into a broader range of sectors, and support more foreign investment inmedium- and high-end manufacturing, R&D, and modern services, as well as inthe central, western and northeastern regions. We will improve services forpromoting foreign investment and accelerate the launching of majorforeign-funded projects.


We willtake solid steps to develop pilot free trade zones and the Hainan Free TradePort, promote reform and innovation in economic development zones, boost thedevelopment of integrated bonded areas, and launch more trials on the extensiveopening of the service sector. The vast, open Chinese market is sure to provideeven greater business opportunities for foreign enterprises in China.




We willpromote high-quality cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative. We remain committed to theprinciple of achieving shared growth through consultation and collaboration. Wewill, on the basis of consolidating cooperation on enhancing connectivity, movesteadily to open up new areas of cooperation. New land-sea transit routes forthe western region will be further developed. We will carry out outboundinvestment and international cooperation in a well-regulated way, andeffectively guard against overseas risks.




We willdeepen multilateral and bilateral economic and trade cooperation. The Regional ComprehensiveEconomic Partnership (RCEP) has created the largest free trade zone in theworld. We will encourage enterprises to make good use of preferential tarifftreatment, cumulation of origin, and other rules under the RCEP framework toexpand cooperation on trade and investment. We will work to negotiate andconclude high-standard free trade agreements with more countries and regions.We will remain firm in upholding the multilateral trade regime and willparticipate actively in the reform of the World Trade Organization. China isready to work with all countries to enhance mutually beneficial cooperation andachieve win-win outcomes for all.




8.Continuing to Improve the Environment and Promoting Green and Low-CarbonDevelopment


We willwork harder to address pollution and protect and restore ecosystems. We willpromote development while also reducing emissions, and ensure greater harmonybetween humanity and nature.




We willimprove the environment with a holistic approach. We will work to make solid gains in thebattle against pollution. We will take coordinated steps to further controlmultiple atmospheric pollutants and treat them through coordination amongregions. We will take stronger action to treat pollution in major rivers,lakes, and bays, and sustain our progress on preventing and controlling soilpollution. We will step up the treatment of solid waste and new pollutants andimplement measures to sort refuse, reduce waste and boost recycling. We willimprove policies to support environmental protection industries in conservingwater and energy and recycling waste and used materials.


We willadopt a more region-specific approach to environmental management, launchgreening programs in a well-conceived manner, and conduct in a coordinated waythe conservation of mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake, grassland, anddesert ecosystems. We will protect biodiversity and advance the development ofthe national park-based nature reserve system. With these efforts, we will makeour common home greener and more beautiful.




We willtake well-ordered steps to achieve peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality.Theaction plan for peaking carbon emissions will be put into effect. To advance China’senergy revolution and ensure energy supply, we will, based on our resourceendowment, push forward the transformation toward low-carbon development, inaccordance with overall planning and the principle of establishing the newbefore abolishing the old. We will work harder to make coal usage cleaner andmore efficient, while reducing the use of coal and replacing it withalternative energy sources in a well-ordered way. We will work to upgradecoal-fired power plants to conserve resources, reduce carbon emissions, makeoperations more flexible, and upgrade heating facilities.


We willadvance the planning and construction of large-scale wind and photovoltaicpower bases with supporting power sources that are adjustable, developpumped-storage hydroelectric plants, and boost the capacity of power grids toabsorb electricity generated from renewable energy sources. We will support thedevelopment of biomass energy. We will promote R&D and application of greenand low-carbon technology, and develop green manufacturing and services. Wewill encourage the steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, chemicals andbuilding materials industries to enhance energy conservation and reduce carbonemissions, and improve energy efficiency in transportation and buildings. Weare resolved to stop the blind development of energy-intensive projects with highemissions and backward production capacity. We will enhance the carbonabsorption capacity of our ecosystems. We will transition from assessing thetotal amount and intensity of energy consumption to assessing the total amountand intensity of carbon emissions, improve policy incentives for reducingpollution and carbon emissions and policy constraints on such emissions,develop green finance, and promote faster development of green and low-carbonways of working and living.




9.Ensuring and improving the people’s wellbeing and promoting better and new waysof conducting social governance


We willdo everything within our capacity to keep enhancing public services and resolveissues that are of common concern to the people.




We willimprove the fairness and quality of education. We will ensure that education performsits fundamental mission of fostering virtue. We will promote high-quality,well-balanced development and urban-rural integration of compulsory education.We will allocate educational resources according to the size of residentialpopulation, see that school-age children can enroll in nearby schools, andensure that all children of rural migrant workers in cities have access toeducation. We will ensure that compulsory education teachers receive their paypackages in full and strengthen targeted training programs, on-the-jobtraining, and salary guarantees for rural teachers. We will continue ourefforts to reduce the burden on students in compulsory education.


We willincrease resources for public-interest preschool education via multiplechannels and promote the development of regular county high schools. We willprovide quality special needs education, continuing education, and specializededucation and support and regulate the development of private schools. We willpromote general and proficient use of standard spoken and written Chinese. Todevelop modern vocational education, we will upgrade vocational schools, refinethe mechanism for integrating vocational education with industry, and enhancethe adaptability of vocational education.


We willdevelop higher education to its full potential and optimize its layout. We willpromote the development of world-class universities and academic disciplines ona categorized basis, move faster to train professionals we are badly lacking inthe fields of science, engineering, agriculture and medicine, and support thedevelopment of higher education in central and western regions. Universitiesand colleges will continue to enroll greater numbers of students from centraland western regions and rural areas.


Stepswill be taken to strengthen professional ethics among teachers. A mechanismwill be established whereby our schools, families and whole society worktogether to advance education. We will promote online education, improve thelifelong learning system, and encourage public respect for teachers and publicsupport for education.


Thereare 290 million students in schools and universities in China. We must ensurethat education, which is important to millions of families and the future ofour nation, is well-run.




We willimprove medical and health services. Government subsidies for basic medicalinsurance for rural and non-working urban residents will be increased by anaverage of 30 yuan per person, and subsidies for basic public health serviceswill be increased by an average of 5 yuan per person. The unified management ofbasic medical insurance funds will be advanced at the provincial level. We willcarry out bulk government purchases for more medicines and high-value medical consumablesand ensure both the production and supply of these items.


We willintensify supervision over the quality and safety of drugs and vaccines. Reformof medical insurance payments under the medical insurance scheme will bedeepened, and medical insurance funds will be placed under strict oversight. Wewill improve the policy on directly settling medical expenses incurred outsideof a patient’s home province, and ensure that the list of medicines covered bymedical insurance is largely consistent nationwide.


Takingprevention as a priority, we will strengthen health education and managementand advance the Healthy China initiative. We will steadily enhance services forthe prevention and treatment of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular andcerebrovascular diseases and cancer as well as infectious diseases such astuberculosis and hepatitis. We will also strengthen research of rare diseasesand better ensure the supply of medicines for these. We will improve the diseaseprevention and control network, increase collaboration between disease controlagencies and hospitals, make greater efforts to train public health personnel,and improve our capabilities for monitoring major epidemics and conductingearly warning, epidemiological investigation and tracing, and emergencyresponse.


We willpromote the comprehensive reform and high-quality development of publichospitals, see that the charges collected by medical institutions and theservices they offer are well-regulated, continue to assist medical institutionshit by Covid-19, and shore up weak links in services such as maternal and childhealthcare, pediatrics, mental health and medical care for the elderly. We willpromote development of both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine,and give greater support to initiatives for vitalizing and developingtraditional Chinese medicine and advance its all-around reform. We willimplement and refine policies for ensuring salary payments and providingincentives for rural doctors.


We willcontinue to promote tiered diagnosis and treatment and sound medical treatmentprocedures, accelerate the development of regional medical centers at thenational and provincial levels, channel more high-quality medical resources tothe prefecture and county levels, enhance community-level disease preventionand treatment capacities, and ensure that people can access higher-qualitymedical and health services close to home.




We willimprove social security and social services. We will work steadily toward nationalunified management of basic old-age insurance funds for enterprise employees,appropriately raise the basic pensions for retirees and basic old-age benefitsfor rural and non-working urban residents, and ensure that these payments aremade on time and in full. We will continue to regulate development ofthird-pillar pension plans. We will move faster to promote unified managementof workers’ compensation funds and unemployment insurance funds at theprovincial level. We will see that service members and their families,ex-service members, and other entitled groups receive the benefits andsubsidies they are entitled to.


We willproactively respond to population aging and worker faster to build a system ofdomestic, community and institutional elderly care services to meet differentmedical and health care needs. We will improve elderly care in urban and ruralareas, support private entities in providing elderly care services such as daycare, assistance with meals and cleaning, and rehabilitation care, steadilyadvance trials for long-term care insurance schemes, and encouragemutual-assistance elderly care in rural areas. We will explore new ways ofdeveloping senior citizen education, and promote high-quality development ofboth elderly care programs and the elderly care sector.


We willimprove the supporting measures for the three-child policy, make care expensesfor children under three part of the special additional deductions forindividual income tax, and develop public-interest childcare services throughmultiple channels, to reduce the costs of giving birth and raising andeducating children. We will step up protection of minors and improve mentalhealth education. We will strengthen disability prevention, and provide better rehabilitationservices for people with disabilities. We will do more to meet the people’sbasic needs, strengthen assistance to people in difficulty, and ensure that oursocial safety net provides support and assistance to everyone who needs it.




We willcontinue to meet people’s housing needs. Guided by the principle that houses arefor living in, not for speculation, we will explore new models for housingdevelopment and encourage both housing rentals and purchases. We will movefaster to develop the long-term rental market, promote the construction ofgovernment-subsidized housing, and support the commodity housing market inbetter meeting the reasonable needs of homebuyers. We will keep land costs,housing prices and market expectations stable, and adopt city-specific measuresto facilitate positive circulation and sound development in the real estatesector.




We willenrich people’s intellectual and cultural lives. We will promote and observe the coresocialist values and carry out public initiatives to promote cultural andethical advancement. We will see that the press and publishing, radio, film andtelevision, literature and art, philosophy, social sciences, and archiving allflourish. A love of reading will continue to be fostered among our people. Wewill develop new ways to strengthen the development of online content andimprove cyberspace governance.


We willdevelop digital public cultural services, improve the layout of culturalfacilities and promote the sharing of cultural resources at the communitylevel, increase the supply of quality cultural products and services, andsupport the development of cultural industries. We will carry forward finetraditional Chinese culture, protect and use cultural artifacts and ancientmanuscripts more effectively, better preserve and pass on our intangiblecultural heritage, and build national cultural parks.


We willmake the most of the legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics andParalympics, and promote the development of ice and snow sports and the wintereconomy. We will see that more sports venues and facilities are built close topeople’s homes and promote extensive public fitness activities.




We willadvance social governance based on collaboration, participation, and commongains. We willwork to ensure that our people enjoy peace and contentment in work and life andthat there is stability and order in society. We will develop new approaches toimproving social governance at the primary level, strengthen the serviceprovision functions of communities, develop a system for mobilizing all sectorsof society, and enhance primary-level governance capacity. We will furtherimprove the social credit system.


We willdevelop social work, and support the healthy development of socialorganizations, humanitarian assistance, volunteer services, public welfare andcharitable initiatives, and other related activities. We will crack down hardon the trafficking and buying of women and children and protect their lawfulrights and interests. The system for supporting and caring for senior citizensand people with disabilities will also be improved.


We willimprove the system for handling public complaints, identify and defuse socialproblems, and see that the justified demands of the public are promptly addressedin accordance with the law. We will attach great importance to publicpsychological and counseling services. Better public legal services and legalaid will be provided. We will enhance disaster prevention, mitigation andrelief capabilities, as well as emergency rescue capacity, better protectagainst floods, droughts, forest and grassland fires, geological disasters andearthquakes, and provide quality meteorological services. We will tightensupervision over quality and safety across the entire food chain. We willimplement the responsibility and management systems for workplace safety, carryout a three-year drive to promote workplace safety, and take effective steps toprevent major and serious accidents.


We willadvance the building of our national security system and capacity, andstrengthen cyber security, data security and protection of personalinformation. We will take a full range of steps to maintain law and order,continue the ongoing efforts to combat organized crime and root out localcriminal gangs, and firmly prevent and crack down on illegal and criminalactivities of all types, so as to reach a higher level in building a peacefulChina and advancing the rule of law in China.








Facingnew developments and tasks, we in government at all levels must fully

act onthe guiding principles from the Party’s 19th National Congress and the plenarysessions of the 19th Party Central Committee. We should acquire a deepunderstanding of the decisive significance of the establishment of both ComradeXi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as awhole and the guiding role of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with ChineseCharacteristics for a New Era, and boost our consciousness of the need tomaintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadershipcore, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership. We should stayconfident in the path, the theory, the system, and the culture of socialismwith Chinese characteristics. We should firmly uphold Comrade Xi Jinping’s coreposition on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and upholdthe Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. Weshould closely follow the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping atits core in thinking, stance, and action.


We remaincommitted to law-based government administration, to making the affairs ofgovernment more transparent, and to building a government based on the rule oflaw.


Ourgovernment will, in compliance with the law, accept the oversight of people’scongresses and their standing committees at the corresponding level. We willconsciously accept democratic oversight from the CPPCC. And we will readilycommit ourselves to public oversight and oversight through public opinion.Audit-based and statistics-based oversight will also be strengthened. We willsupport trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, women’sfederations, and other people’s organizations in better fulfilling their roles.


We willkeep working tirelessly to ensure full and strict Party self-governance and domore to improve Party conduct, build integrity and prevent corruption. We willwork harder to build a government of integrity. What we have gained from theinitiatives to study the history of the CPC will be consolidated. All of us ingovernment must readily accept the oversight of the law, supervisory bodies andthe people, always regard the people’s interests as our highest concern, andtruly serve as public servants of the people.




In theface of difficulties and challenges, it is vital that all of us in governmentsat all levels perform our duties, work diligently for the people, and makeconcerted efforts to promote development and ensure the public wellbeing.Development remains the top priority for China, and we must fully act on thenew development philosophy to pursue high-quality development.


We willcontinue to steadfastly implement the central Party leadership’s eight-pointdecision on improving conduct and work ceaselessly to oppose pointlessformalities, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, with a particular focuson the first two problems. We will firmly oppose perfunctory attitudes and buckpassing in government, and take strong steps to correct any abuse of power andany simplistic or unmannerly way of conducting work.


We mustalways keep in mind the people’s security and wellbeing. We will work tounderstand the realities, take specific steps, and deliver solid outcomes topromptly respond to the people’s concerns. And we will take strong measuresagainst any dereliction of duty owing to disregard for the people’s legitimaterights and interests.


We willkeep the central and local governments fully motivated and respect thepioneering spirit of the people. We will avoid a one-size-fits-all approach,refrain from making local governments take excessive policy steps, and continueeasing the burdens on those working on the ground.


We willimprove the mechanisms for providing incentives and protections to supportofficials who readily take responsibility and ably perform their duties. Aslong as all of us throughout the country are working as one to the best of ourabilities, we will undoubtedly accomplish new achievements in pursuingdevelopment.








We willcontinue to practice and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy, focuson forging a strong sense of community among the Chinese people, promoteinteractions, exchanges and integration among all ethnic groups, and speed upthe modernization drive in ethnic minority regions.


We willadhere to the Party’s basic policy on religious affairs, follow the principlethat religions in China must be Chinese in orientation, and provide activeguidance to religions so they can adapt themselves to socialist society.


We willfully implement the Party’s policy on overseas Chinese affairs, protect thelawful rights and interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad, returnedChinese, and relatives of overseas Chinese nationals residing in China, andencourage all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both at home andabroad, to work together in creating new glories for our nation.








Last year, we mademajor strides in strengthening national defense and the armed forces, gettingoff to a good start in this endeavor in the 14th Five-Year Plan period. Thisyear, we will fully implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the armedforces and the military strategy for the new era, work toward the goals for thecentenary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2027, and strengthen Partyleadership and Party building in all aspects of the military. We will enhancemilitary training and combat readiness, stay firm and flexible in carrying outmilitary struggle, and safeguard China’s sovereignty, security and developmentinterests.


We will move fasterto modernize the military’s logistics and asset management systems, and build amodern weaponry and equipment management system. We will continue the reform ofnational defense and the military and step up innovations in defense scienceand technology. We will implement the strategy of strengthening the military bytraining competent personnel in the new era, run the military in accordancewith the law and strict discipline, and promote high-quality development of themilitary. We will improve the layout of defense science, technology andindustry.


We will finishreforming the defense mobilization system and raise public awareness ofnational defense. Government at all levels must give strong support to thedevelopment of national defense and the armed forces, and conduct extensiveactivities to promote mutual support between civilian sectors and the military,so that the unity between the military and government and between the militaryand the people will remain rock solid.








We willmaintain our firm commitment to the letter and spirit of the policy of OneCountry, Two Systems, under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong,and the people of Macao administer Macao, both with a high degree of autonomy.We will ensure that the central government exercises overall jurisdiction overthe two special administrative regions, and firmly uphold the principle thatHong Kong and Macao should be governed by patriots. We will fully support thegovernments of these two special administrative regions in exercising law-basedgovernance. We will help Hong Kong and Macao respond to Covid-19, develop theireconomies, and improve the wellbeing of their people, see that these tworegions better integrate themselves into the country’s overall development, andmaintain the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao.




Weremain committed to the major principles and policies on work related toTaiwan, to the Party’s overall policy for resolving the Taiwan question in thenew era, and to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. We will advancethe peaceful growth of relations across the Taiwan Strait and the reunificationof China. We firmly oppose any separatist activities seeking “Taiwanindependence” and firmly oppose foreign interference. All of us, Chinese onboth sides of the Taiwan Strait, should come together to advance the great andglorious cause of China’s rejuvenation.








Chinawill continue to pursue an independent foreign policy of peace, stay on thepath of peaceful development, work for a new type of international relations,and endeavor to build a human community with a shared future. We will pursuethe Global Development Initiative and promote the shared values of allhumanity. China will always work to safeguard world peace, contribute to globaldevelopment, and preserve international order. We stand ready to work with allothers in the international community to make new and greater contributions topromoting world peace, stability, development and prosperity.









It hasalways been in the course of meeting challenges that China has advanced itsdevelopment. We the Chinese people have the courage, vision and strength toovercome any obstacle or difficulty. We must rally more closely around the CPCCentral Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, hold high the banner ofsocialism with Chinese characteristics, and follow the guidance of Xi JinpingThought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.


We willmeet challenges squarely, forge ahead determinedly, work hard to fulfill thisyear’s goals and tasks, set the stage for the 20th National Congress of the CPCwith concrete actions, and continue working tirelessly to build our countryinto a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic,culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful, and to realize the ChineseDream of national rejuvenation.

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